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Автор: Administrator   

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17.07.2011 15:21

Макронаполненные композиты

Макронаполненные (макрофильные) композиты содержат частицы неорганического наполнителя большого размера (8—45 мкм; иногда — до 100 мкм) (см. рис. 238). Наполнителем обычно служит кварц, молотое стекло, керамика. Первые образцы композитов в начале 60-х годов были изготовлены именное применением макронаполнителей.

Положительные свойства макронаполненных композитов:

- высокая прочность;

- приемлемые оптические свойства;

- рентгеноконтрастность.

Однако в процессе длительных клинических наблюдений выявился ряд отрицательных свойств этой группы композитов:

- трудность полирования, отсутствие «сухого блеска»;

- высокая шероховатость поверхности;

- выраженное накопление зубного налета;

- плохая цветостойкость.

Все эти недостатки связаны с большим размером и «нерегулярностью» формы частиц наполнителя. Шероховатость поверхности приводит к быстрому абразивному износу органической матрицы. При этом неорганические частицы становятся свободными и выпадают из матрицы, еще больше увеличивая ее шероховатость. Абразивный износ пломбы приводит к изнашиванию жевательной поверхности, потере межзубных и окклюзионных контактов. Это влечет за собой горизонтальное и вертикальное смещение (миграцию) зубов за счет феномена Попова-Годона, деформацию окклюзионной плоскости.

Схематическое изображение структуры макронаполненного композита

Наиболее существенным недостатком макронаполненных композитов являются их неудовлетворительные эстетические свойства, связанные с большими размерами частиц наполнителя.

В связи с перечисленными выше недостатками и появлением новых, более эффективных материалов, в настоящее время макронаполненные композиты в практической стоматологии почти не применяются и представляют интерес скорее с исторической точки зрения. Хотя, следует признать, что эти композиты по-прежнему остаются наиболее прочными из композитных материалов, что связано в большим размером частиц наполнителя (высокая прочность на изгиб). Учитывая относительную дешевизну и доступность этих материалов, их вполне целесообразно применять на «бесплатном» и малобюджетном приеме. Наиболее известные из макронаполненных композитов представлены в таблице 29.

Если в клинике применяются макронаполненные композитные материалы, то их использование показано в следующих ситуациях:

1. Пломбирование полостей I и II классов.

2. Пломбирование полостей V класса в жевательных зубах.

3. Пломбирование полостей в передних зубах, если не требуется эстетический эффект (например, при локализации кариозной полости на язычной поверхности).

4. Восстановление сильно разрушенных коронок фронтальных зубов с последующей облицовкой вестибулярной поверхности более эстетичным, например, микронаполненным композитом.

5. Моделирование культи зуба под коронку («Coradent», Vivadent; «Rebilda», VOCO).

Макронаполненные композиты




Следующие материалы:
Предыдущие материалы:


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Обновлено 18.07.2011 15:21
 
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