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Автор: Administrator   

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15.10.2012 19:13

Отбеливание, шлифовка и полировка штампованной коронки

 

Припасованную в полости рта пациента коронку вновь передают в зуботехническую лабораторию для отбеливания, шлифовки и полировки.

В процессе изготовления зубных протезов производят термическую обработку металлических частей, что повышает и ускоряет их химическое взаимодействие с кислородом воздуха. В результате такого воздействия на поверхности металла образуется окисная пленка (окалина), ухудшающая внешний вид металла, затрудняющая процессы обработки, шлифовки и полировки поверхности. Удаление окисной пленки со всей поверхности металлических частей, в данном случае коронки, осуществляется при помощи различных химических реактивов, именуемых отбелами. Взаимодействие отбелов с окисной пленкой по существу является реакцией восстановления. В качестве отбелов применяют водные растворы многих кислот (соляной, серной, азотной и др.) и их смеси,

Для отбеливания протезов, изготовленных из сплавов золота и серебрянопалладиевых, применяют 40% водный раствор соляной кислоты. Изделие нагревают докрасна, а затем опускают в сосуд с раствором соляной кислоты и закрывают крышкой. Через 1-2 мин изделие извлекают из раствора и промывают в проточной воде. Все работы с соляной кислотой следует проводить в вытяжном шкафу, так как пары ее оказывают вредные влияния на слизистую оболочку дыхательных путей. Нельзя допускать попадания ее на одежду, кожу и инструменты. Следует иметь в виду, что после штамповки коронок из сплавов золота в формах, изготовленных из легкоплавких металлов, на коронках остаются их частицы в виде налета. Этот налет снимают путем погружения коронки в соляную кислоту на 2-3 минуты. Затем коронку тщательно промывают водой и протирают. В противном случае легкоплавкий металл при подогревании вступает в химическое соединение с золотом, в результате чего образуется отверстие в изделии или полное его сгорание. В качестве отбелов для обработки коронок, изготовленных из нержавеющей стали, применяют смесь, наиболее часто состоящую из 6 частей азотной кислоты, 47 частей соляной кислоты, 47 частей воды. В этом растворе стальные изделия кипятят в течение 1-2 минут.

Отбелы взаимодействуют не только с окисной пленкой, находящейся на поверхности металла, но частично растворяют и сам металл. Поэтому во избежание порчи коронки необходимо строго соблюдать режим отбеливания.

После отбеливания коронку шлифуют эластичным кругом, затем на жесткую щетку или фильц (укрепленные в шлифмашине) наносят полировочную пасту в зависимости от материала, из которого сделана коронка, и заканчивают полировку мягкой нитяной щеткой «пушок». В качестве полировочных масс применяют нижеследующие. Окись железа, или крокус (Fe2 O3) получают при взаимодействии железного купороса и щавелевой кислоты. Представляет собой порошок бурого цвета. Используется для приготовления полировочной пасты, в состав которой входит 35-45 частей окиси железа, 20 частей олеина, 15 частей стеарина и 6 частей парафина. Эта паста применяется для полировки протезов из сплавов золота и не рекомендуется для полировки изделий из нержавеющей стали, так как крокус понижает антикоррозийные свойства стали.

Окись хрома — мелкозернистый порошок зеленого цвета. Получают путем прокаливания двухромовокислого калия и серы в соотношении 5:1. Используется для изготовления полировочных паст. Широкое распространение получили пасты, разработанные Государственным оптическим институтом (ГОИ) (табл. 11). Последние и применяются для полировки протезов из нержавеющей стали.

Пасты ГОИ


Следующие материалы:
Предыдущие материалы:


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Обновлено 15.10.2012 19:28
 
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