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Автор: Administrator   

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06.09.2012 18:19

Искусственные коронки. Классификация. Показания и противопоказания

Наиболее частыми протезами, применяемыми для восстановления разрушенной коронки зуба, являются полные искусственные коронки. В связи с тем, что они имеют различную конструкцию и предназначены для разных целей, их систематизируют по определенным признакам:

I. По конструкции или по величине и способу охвата зуба:

1) полные, то есть покрывающие все поверхности зуба;

2) экваторные, то есть доходящие до экватора зуба;

3) коронки со штифтом;

4) телескопические коронки;

5) окончатые или фенстер-коронки.

II. По методу изготовления:

1) штампованные;

2) литые;

3) паяные (шовные) — сейчас практически не применяются.

III. В зависимости от материала:

1) металлические (сплавы золота, нержавеющая сталь, кобальтохромовые сплавы (КХС), серебрянопалладиевые, титановые);

2) неметаллические (пластмассовые, фарфоровые);

3) комбинированные, то есть облицованные пластмассой, фарфором или другими керамическими массами (ме-таллопластмассовые и металлокерамические).

IV. По назначению:

1) восстановительные;

2) опорные (в мостовидных или других видах протезов);

3) фиксирующие (для удержания лекарств, ортодонти-ческих или челюстно-лицевых аппаратов);

4) шинирующие;

5) временные и постоянные.

Показания к применению коронок:

1. Безусловным показанием к применению искусственных коронок является значительное разрушение зуба вследствие кариеса, его осложнений или других причин. То есть, иными словами, показаниями являются те дефекты коронок зубов, которые не могут быть устранены пломбой или вкладкой.

2. В ряде случаев металлические коронки применяются для покрытия зубов, которые служат опорой для кламмеров, особенно если надо изменить их клиническую форму.

3. Для фиксации при лечении мостовидными протезами, то есть опорные коронки.

4. При патологической стираемости для предупреждения развития дальнейшего стирания.

5. При аномалийной форме, цвете, структуре зубов.

6. Для крепления различных ортодонтических или че-люстно-лицевых аппаратов.

7. Для шинирования при заболеваниях пародонта и при переломах челюстей.

8. Для удержания лекарств.

9. Эстетические показания (фарфоровые, пластмассовые и комбинированные коронки).

Противопоказанным надо считать покрытие коронками интактных зубов, если это не вызвано конструктивными особенностями зубных протезов. Не следует покрывать коронками зубы с неизлеченными очагами хронического воспаления в области краевого или верхушечного пародонта, зубы с выраженной патологической подвижностью (III степень по Энтину); при плохом общем состоянии здоровья.


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Обновлено 06.09.2012 18:26
 
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